Advanced course outline
This includes the motivational process, motivation drivers which describe achievement motivation, need category systems, motivational and maintenance factors, behaviour modifications and re-inforcement, goal setting and its effects. It also discusses motivation drivers in detail which includes: Achievement motivation, affiliation motivation, competence motivation, power motivation. This module also looks at managerial application of the drivers in form of Human needs, the types of needs, variation in needs, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, lower –order needs, higher- order needs; interpreting the hierarchy of needs; Herzbergs two factor model, maintenance and motivational factors.
The module further introduces the Job content and context in terms of Intrinsic and extrinsic motivators; interpreting the two-faced model; Alderfer’s E-R-G model, the comparison of the Maslow, Herzberg and Alderfers models. The module will also look at the behavior modifications, the law of effect, alternative consequences, schedules of reinforcement; fixed interval; variable interval, fixed ration, variable ratio; Interpreting behaviour modifications; social learning theory; Goal setting: elements of goal setting, goal acceptance, specificity, challenge, and International perspectives on motivation.
This involves a discussion of the nature of change, costs and benefits of change, psychic costs of change, resistance to change, basic frameworks for interpreting change, role of transformational leadership in change, practices to build support for change; The Work Change; the nature of work change, responses to change. It will also address the ‘X’ chart: a model –of how individual attitudes affect response to change; Hawthorne effect, group response to change, homoeostasis, costs and benefits. The Resistance to change; nature and effects, effects for resistance, types of resistance, logical resistance, sociological resistance, possible benefits of resistances.
Further more it looks at implementing change successfully; transformational leadership and change, creating vision, communicating charisma, stimulating learning. Three styles in change; reacting a new equilibrium , the organizational learning curve for change, building support for change and use of group forces; providing a rationale for change, participations, shared rewards, employee security, communication, stimulating employee readiness, working with unions as well as working with the total system.
The first section on this module looks at understanding the nature of leadership and followership, the difference between traits and behaviors, different leadership styles, early approaches to leadership, contingency approaches to leadership, substitutes for leadership, self and super leadership. It will further focus on the nature of leadership, management and leadership, traits of effective leaders, leadership behaviour, technical skills, human skill, conceptual skill, situational aspects, and fellowship. The Behavioral approaches to leadership style, positive and negative leaders, autocratic participative and free-reign leaders, leader use of consideration and structure, and the managerial grid. The module also addresses contingency approaches to leadership style, Fiedlers’s contingency model, Heresy and Blanchard’s situational leadership model, path-goal model of leadership, goal setting, path improvement, leadership styles, contingency factors, Vrooms decision making model, problem attributes, leadership options. Emerging approaches to leadership: substitutes and enhancers for leadership, super leadership, other approaches and the supervisor’s unique leadership role.
This module looks at the important areas the expectancy model of motivation, how employees perceive their needs, equity comparisons, the process of attribution, the role of the self fulfilling prophesy, the relationship among motivational models. The expectancy model; the three factors, valence, expectancy, instrumentality. Valence x Expectancy instrumentality= Motivation. How the model works; the impact of uncertainty, evaluating the expectancy model; advantages, limitations. Comparison models; the equity model, interpreting the equity model, the attribution model, nature of attributions, related ideas, application of attribution. Interpreting motivational models; micromotivation, the macromotivation model.
The module looks at the two way communication process, barriers to communication, factors leading to effective communication, downward and upward communications problems, the role of performance feedback , questioning, and listening, communication networks, electronic communication. Communication fundamentals: importance of communication, the two-way communication process. Developing an idea; encode, transmit, receive, decode, accept, use, provide feedback. Potential problems: communication barriers, personal barriers, physical barriers and semantic barriers. Communication symbols: words, pictures, action (nonverbal communication). Downward communication; pre-requisites and problems, communication overload, acceptance of a communication, communication needs, job instructions, performance feedback, news, social support. Upward communication; difficulties, upward – communication practices, questioning, listening, employee meetings, an open door policy and participation in social groups. Other forms of communication; lateral communication, networks, ombudsperson, electronic mail, telecommuting.